Wednesday, 5 August 2015


Money Market:
“These are generally short term instruments(less than 1 year original maturity)        government and corporate debt securities”
It also includes government securities originally issued with maturities of more than 1 year but that now have a year or less until maturity.
                     Features of money market securities
Short term borrowing
·         Low credit risk
·         High liquidity
                                Securities in Pakistan
1.      Treasury bill
2.      Commercial Papers
3.      Eurodollars deposit
4.      Bankers’ acceptances (BAs)
5.      Repurchase agreements (RPs)                                                                                                                                                                             
“These are the short term non -interest- bearing obligations of the US Treasury issued at discount and exchanged at maturity for full face value”
The Government of Pakistan raise large portion of moving and permanent debt through the auctions of short term Government of Pakistan Market Treasury Bills (MTBs)
Usually T-bill are issued the bidding process and the Pakistan government follow the T-bill procedure it’s a safest investment there is less risk return are less because it is safest treasures.
These securities are very popular in companies in part because large and active market involved them. T-bills are sold on a discount basis.
The interest income of these securities is taxed at the federal level.
These are the maturities when T-bill issued:
·         Three-months
·         Six-months
·         Twelve months 
DEFAULT RISK: It is the guarantee of government so they have less default risk.
LIQUIDITY: These are the highly liquid of financial, whenever the holder wants.
MINIMUM DENOMINATION: These securities are sold in Pakistan minimum amount is RS 100 and multiple of  RS 100 above the minimum.
                                      HOW T-bills are traded in Pakistan
We know that T-bills were issued on “ Tap basis” for 6 months at 6% per year. Due to the economic crisis in Pakistan time to time the system is changed and the new rules are come up.
·         Introduce the American-style auction-based system.
·         The role of primary market
·         Primary dealers were appointed. 
“These are the short term unsecured promissory notes, issued by the large corporations”
Commercial paper can be sold by the issuing firm directly or through dealers.
A number of large firms have found it cheaper to sell their paper directly to investor.
These securities usually issued at a discount rate. Maturities 30 days or 1 year from the date of payment.
These securities issued shall be not less than 10million for the private company would be denominated of 100,000.and for the general public company would be denominated 5000
“Agreement to buy the securities (usually Treasury bills) and to resell them at a specified higher price at a later date”
·         Major borrowers include government, bond dealers of Treasuries and federal funds securities, and large banks
·         Active lenders include state and local governments, insurance companies, non-financial corporations, and foreign financial institutions
“Short term promissory trade notes for which a bank (by having accepted them) promises to pay the holder the face amount at maturity”
This note sold at discount rate same as Treasury bill.
·         The word accepted on top of his signatures and
·         The date on which the amount will be paid
(BAs) are the time of drafts (short term promissory notes)drawn on the bank by a firm to help finance foreign  and domestic trade.
In case of accepting the draft a bank promises to pay the holder of the draft a specified amount of money at maturity. Acceptances is primarily judge relative to the bank accepting the drafts.
The maturity of banker acceptance in between the 30 to 180 days.
This promissory is creditworthiness of bank acceptance.
They are traded over a security market
The rates on banker’s acceptances are slightly higher than the rates on treasury bills like is also offered at discount rate.
Banker’s acceptances can be on domestic banks and on large foreign banks.
“US dollar-denominated deposit – generally in a bank located outside the US not subject to united state banking regulations”
Although most of the Eurodollars are deposited in banks in Europe, the term applies to any dollar deposit in foreign banks or in foreign branches of US banks
For the large corporation having ready access to international money centers. Eurodollar deposit is usually an important investment option.
SUPPOSE we assume that we own a cement firm in Pakistan. We shipped that consignment and the worth of this consignment is 2million to the American importer. We have an account in US bank. The US importers pays the bill in US money and deposits the amount it in your account held in US bank Draft

“These are the long term securities which are (greater than one year original maturity)
Financial instruments E.g bonds, stocks etc”
The primary role of capital market is to raise long term funds for government bonds and corporations. This raising of funds is controlled by stock and bond markets. The members of the capital market issue stocks and bonds in order to raise funds. Investors purchase those stocks and bonds.
                       “Capital market serves as a link between savers and investors”
It plays an important role in mobilizing savings and diverts the savings into productive investment. In this way capital market plays an important role in transferring the financial resources from surplus areas to productive areas thus promote economic growth of the country. The capital market includes:-
Stock market (Equity securities)
Bond Market ( Debt)
There are two types of capital market:
·         Primary market
·         Secondary market
“Primary market”  the bonds and stocks are sold through a mechanism of underwriting. In “secondary market” existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on a securities exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere. Capital markets not only reflect the general conditions of the economy of any country but also smoothens the economic growth. The proper allocation of resources results in the expansion of growth and progress in public and private sectors of the country thus results in the balanced growth in economy of the country. Capital market is that type of financial market that deals with the medium to long term funds from surplus to deficit unit.

Equities issued by the company can also be obtained from sEcondary and primary market. Preference shares are ranked second after the bond holders .Derivatives are those instruments that arrive from other securities .Derivative can be an asset instrument or a situation. Derivatives are mostly common in developed economies. Some examples of derivatives are:-
·         Asset-Backed
·         Securities (ABS)
·         Exchange Traded Funds
·         Commodities
·         Futures
·         Options
·         Swaps
·         Rights 
Pakistan Equity Capital market:-
Stock market performance is one of the key determinants of political and economic conditions of any country. Pakistan’s equity capital markets include:- 
·         Karachi Stock Exchange
·         Lahore Stock Exchange
·         Islamabad stock Exchange
Karachi Stock Exchange: 
Karachi stock exchange is one of the largest and oldest stock exchange in south asia.It was established in 18th September 1947.
Performance of Karachi Stock Exchange
Karachi Stock Market remained in record high trajectory during 2012-13, with the KSE-100 Index is setting new records by each passing day and trading at above 20,300 level in mid May 2013 for the first time in its history.
Lahore Stock Exchange:-
The Lahore stock exchange was established in1974.The turn over shares of the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE) during July-March 2012-13 was 0.6 billion compared to almost the same figure in the same period last year. 
Islamabad Stock Exchange:-

The Islamabad stock exchange was established in1989.The turnover of share of the Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE) was 0.02 billion during July-March 2012-13 as compared to 0.01 billion during the same period last year

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